Research Article

The Effects of Modified Ketogenic Diet on Blood Parameters of Patients with Glioblastoma: A Retrospective Study


  • Serhat Dinç
  • Osman Nuri Kılıç
  • Ezgisu Kırnap
  • İpek Mavcioğlu
  • Nuri Saraç
  • Sinan Sefer
  • Malhun Azra Şenyuva
  • Eyyub SM Al-Beyati
  • Özlem Doğan
  • Serhat Hayme
  • Hasan Çağlar Uğur
  • Aslıhan Gürbüz

Received Date: 04.05.2020 Accepted Date: 20.09.2021 J Ankara Univ Fac Med 2022;75(1):16-21


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor among all brain tumors. As observed in most tumors, Warburg effect is also seen in GBM. Approaches such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are used in the treatment of GBM. Unfortunately, these treatment options are not as effective as expected. For this reason, new searches for GBM treatment are being sought. Modified ketogenic diet (MKD) (low glycemic index diet) is one of these novel approaches. The primary purpose of this diet is to increase fat consumption and reduce carbohydrate intake. In this way, in addition to standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy, it is intended to hinder or cease the development of cancer by affecting the intermediate steps of the Warburg effect.

Materials and Methods:

It was aimed to evaluate the effects of MKD on the general health status of GBM patients who were on this diet voluntarily and were followed in the Clinic of Neurosurgery of İbn-i Sina Hospital, Ankara University. For this, their blood parameters were retrospectively analyzed. Although it is reported to be moderate and regenerative in the literature, it is a question of whether especially liver & kidney functions and blood electrolytes undergo any changes during diet. In this retrospective study, the effect of MKD on routine blood parameters (Hb, Htc, MCH, MCV, PLT, WBC, RBC, Na, K, ALT, AST, GGT, vitamin B12, folate, creatinine, BUN, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL) was investigated in patients with GBM under treatment, who voluntarily followed MKD. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel. The Wilcoxon paired comparison test was used to compare patient data in 0., 1. and 6. months. Ethics committee approval and institutional permission were obtained for the study. The patients’ written consent could not be taken due to the retrospective design of the study and the anonymity of data.


A clinically insignificant decrease in sodium levels were detected. Normalization of the initially high GGT values was considered as a favorable outcome. Folic acid elevation in the first month was interpreted positively for the patient. The increase in total cholesterol and LDL in the first month was expected because of the high fat content of the diet.


Modified ketogenic nutrition did not have a negative effect on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters in patients with GBM.

Keywords: Modified Ketogenic Diet (Low Glycemic Index), Warburg Effect, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Blood Parameters

Full Text (Turkish)