Invited Paper

Spondylolisthesis: Etiology, Diagnosis, Clinical Features and Treatment


  • Esra Moustafa
  • Birkan Sonel Tur

Received Date: 21.06.2018 Accepted Date: 07.11.2018 J Ankara Univ Fac Med 2018;71(3):118-126

Spondylolisthesis is anterior or posterior shift according to the vertebrae to which a vertebrate is associated. It is confronted as a broad clinical spectrum ranging from simple mechanical back pain to progressive neurological deficits and radiological findings. Prevalence is 3-6% and male/ female ratio is 2. The diagnosis of spondylolisthesis is almost always made with direct radiographs. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), other radiological diagnostic methods such as bone scintigraphy are also used in diagnosis or follow-up. Conservative treatment includes activity restriction, rehabilitation of abdominal and paraspinal muscles and hyperlordotic rigid bracing. The main goal is to reduce pain, strengthen the core of the muscles and to provide complete lumber motion. Surgical treatment is usually performed in patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. We aimed to review current literature regarding the etiology, diagnosis, clinical features and treatment of spondylolisthesis.

Keywords: Spondylolisthesis, Anterolisthesis, Classification, Treatment, Exercise

Full Text (Turkish)